Geoff Squire

Agroecology News Archive

Ecological roles of weeds In an invited plenary talk, Geoff Squire represented the group's ideas on the roles of weeds at the XIII Colloque International sur la Biologie des Mauvaises Herbes held at Dijon, France 8-10 September 2009. The main points of the talk were: weeds have been with us in northern Europe for more than 5000 years - we haven't got rid of them; so we need to understand them better, spend less trying to remove them and make use of their positive roles in the ecosystem. Arable cropping in Scotland is already some way towards coexisting with weeds: its cereal yields and weed seedbanks are both among the highest in the UK!  (Added 14 September 2009)

Publications archive

Refereed publications and major reports from the Agroecology group

Newton, A.C., Begg, G.S., Swanston, J.S. 2008. Deployment of diversity for enhanced crop function. Annals of Applied Biology (doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2008.00303.x).

Monocultures are used in high-input systems to maximise short term profitability, but over time yield and quality can become unstable. This paper considers how diversity can be reintroduced to cropping systems to confer stability without compromising quality. It combines expertise between three of SCRI's programmes: Pathology (ACN), Genetics (JSS) and Environment (GSB).

Squire, G.R., Hawes, C., Begg, G.S., Young, M.W. 2009. Cumulative impact of GM herbicide-tolerant cropping on arable plants assessed through species-based and functional taxonomies. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 16(1), 85-94. Published online 2 December 2008 (doi: 10.1007/s11356-008-0072-6).

Co-existence with GM crops in European Agriculture

SIGMEA logoThe EU project SIGMEA is examining the feasibility of growing GM and other crops together in the agricultural landscapes of Europe. A central part of the project - Workpackage 2 or WP2 - collates and analyses experimental studies on geneflow by seed and pollen, but also considers field experiments on the ecological impacts of GM cropping. WP2 has over 20 partners who are sharing and analysing definitive data on over 100 field experiments, making the SIGMEA database the most comprehensive of its type. The agroecology group at SCRI co-ordinates this unique synthesis of biology and agronomy. Contact: Geoff Squire

Movement and Persistence of Genes in the Environment

Image of feral oilseed rape growing alongside a new field of oilseed rapeThe movements of genes and organisms over the landscape are natural processes that came to public attention in the assessment of GM crops. Issues on gene and seed movement go beyond the GM debate, and indeed, the major current research here on geneflow uses non-GM markers. The group combines statistical, molecular, genetic, mathematical and ecological skills to investigate the movement of genetic material and its consequences. It maintains large study areas in Tayside and in England in which it tracks the occurrence and persistence of volunteers, ferals and wild relatives.

Research projects

Research has developed in this topic for more than ten years through a series of projects funded from Europe, the UK and Scotland and from the research councils in collaboration with universities. Our contributions over this period include:

Ecological biosafety and gene flow

Image of Laying out field experiment in the Carse of GowrieThe agroecology group at SCRI continues to make major contributions through research and extension to questions on GM crops. We examine their potential roles in cropping systems, their positive and negative environmental effects, the movement of genetic material through pollen and seed and the  means by which GM and other crops might coexist in European agriculture. We combine knowledge of biology, modelling and molecular science to answer some of the most important topical questions in ecological biosafety. All our findings are made public. Members of the group are regularly invited to advise national and international commissions in biosafety and to develop training methods for environmental risk assessment.

Farm Scale Evaluations (FSEs) of GM Herbicide Tolerant Crops

Map showing FSE sites 2000 - 2002

The group conducts impartial and independent assessment of GM crops by research financed through public funding. The Farm Scale Evaluations (FSE) of GM herbicide tolerant (GMHT) crops was commissioned by government and, including follow-up studies on GM persistence, ran from 1999 to 2006. It arose out of general concerns that the intensification of farming had reduced arable biodiversity to the point where species were disappearing from the UK and essential functions of the habitat were impaired. Despite potential benefits of GM cropping with herbicide tolerant varieties, concerns were raised that GMHT cropping would lead to even further impairment of arable systems. The FSE was commissioned to investigate the potential effects of this type of biotechnology.

Environment Plant Interactions

Image of the SCRI site looking towards the River TaySCRI's environmental science research spans across disciplines to gain a holistic understanding of how plants respond to and modify environmental processes. Scottish Government commissioned research is gaining an in-depth understanding of the environment in arable farming systems and this is being used to advise on policy development in Scotland. These skills have also been applied to emerging issues relevant to the UK and Europe, including the UK’s Farm Scale Evaluations, international working groups, IPDM-based alternatives to pesicides and EU-wide studies on the ecological impacts of GM plants.

The environment and the ecology of plants and pests are our key research areas, investigated by a strong multidisciplinary team of scientists in entomology, pathology, plant sciences, vegetation ecology, phytochemistry, mathematical modelling and soil sciences. A major area of interest is integrating processes that occur above ground and in the soil. Research conducted on plant interactions with soil has extended from the understanding of sustainable arable systems to ‘green’ engineering solutions for slope stabilisation with vegetation.

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