baseline

The baseline

Essential to any conceptual or predictive study of a 'system' is a reference  to real examples of its state and dynamics. Concepts and models should consider how the past has given rise to the present before they can can hope to predict how the present can be the basis of a sustainable future. At the beginning of this study, there was little systematic information at the scale of the field on either present or past states.

Historical trajectories

The condition of soil and farming in the past is not well documented. The major surveys of soil and vegetation provide useful background but are too infrequent. The main systematic source of data is the June Agricultural Census from which the areas grown with different crops and grass can be collated. Ten areas, defined by groups of parishes, shown circled in red in the map to the left, were selected as covering most types of farming within the arable-grass system. The Scottish Government provided data on cropped areas in each group, as electronic files from 1982 and as scanned paper documents before that. Other sources are being used to complement the information from the June census, notably surveys of pesticides and fertilizer.

Seedbanks of arable east Scotland 2007

The lack of a baseline on which to assess differences between farming preferences and soil types necessitated this extensive study of seedbanks in representative fields in the east of Scotland from Moray, through Aberdeenshire, Angus, Fife and the Lothians to the Borders. Soil samples were collected in 2007 from more than 100 fields. The aims were to see whether seedbanks differed in relation to soil, latitude, crop rotation and management inputs. The information will contribute as a reference and baseline along with data on soil physical and microbiological properties, vegetation, agronomy and yield as part of the RERAD workpackage on Sustainable Crop Systems.

The methodology, using the emergence method,  was similar to that used in the FSEs. Soil samples were taken by field teams from SCRI and SAC and laid out in trays in the glasshouses at SCRI in Dundee. The first flush of seedlings, mainly of spring-germinators and generalist species was measured for several months after sampling. In the autumn of 2007, the soil in each tray was remixed and emergence was again measured, this time capturing the autumn-germinators. The advantage of this substantive database is the wide range of associated measurements, much more than in the FSEs, that should enable us to quantify the seedbank's dual role of weed burden and base of the arable food web.

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