species area

Wild arable plants - diversity and function

The ecology and biology of wild arable plants are poorly understood. Of the more than 250 plant species to be found on arable farmland, typically five to 10, among which are wild oat, blackgrass, barren brome and cleavers, constitute the main weed burden of arable cropping. Many of the rest, particularly the broadleaf (dicotyledonous) species, support an arable food web that includes insect groups, mammals and birds. Despite the economic, ecological and aesthetic importance of wild arable plants, embarrassingly little is known about their ecology and genetic diversity.

Our first research paper in this new topic demonstrated the lack of basic information for even the common species (Hawes et al., 2005). If arable cropping systems are to be sustainable, then co-existence between crops and weeds must be managed with minimum or no herbicide application. To achieve this, fundamental and strategic research is necessary into the way wild arable plants respond to crops, weather and field management.

The seedbank

Seeds from the arable seedbank - photograph by Gladys Wright/Stewart MaleckiBuried living seed - the seedbank - is central to the composition and succession of disturbed vegetation, allowing regeneration after agricultural or natural clearing of the existing plant cover. In arable-grass systems, the seedbank is the source of both the weed burden and the vegetation that supports the arable food web. Of around 250 species typically found in arable regions, only five to 10 are economically important as competitors to crops. Few of the poisonous species that were once a concern now remain in fields. Most of the other seedbank species have been reduced, in particular the broadleaf or dicotyledonous species that provide food and habitat for detritus feeders, herbivores, parasitoids, predators and pollinators. Knowing the seedbank is therefore essential for balancing the weed burden and biodiversity.

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