Agroecology News Archive

Ecological roles of weeds In an invited plenary talk, Geoff Squire represented the group's ideas on the roles of weeds at the XIII Colloque International sur la Biologie des Mauvaises Herbes held at Dijon, France 8-10 September 2009. The main points of the talk were: weeds have been with us in northern Europe for more than 5000 years - we haven't got rid of them; so we need to understand them better, spend less trying to remove them and make use of their positive roles in the ecosystem. Arable cropping in Scotland is already some way towards coexisting with weeds: its cereal yields and weed seedbanks are both among the highest in the UK!  (Added 14 September 2009)

PhD Studentship in geotextile engineering A new PhD student, Wenni Deng, recently joined the group to explore the potential geotechnical properties of seed coat mucus. She secured one of the first studentships offered through the Centre for Environmental Change and Human Resilience (CECHR), a new initiative between the University of Dundee and SCRI. The aim of CECHR is to establish interdisciplinary research to promote sustainable use of the earth's resources by fostering collaboration between science, social science and policy. Wenni's project is titled Engineering novel geotextiles from an understanding of the dynamic properties of seed coat mucus. Wenni received her first degree in Civil Engineering at Huazhong University and a Masters in Geotechnical Engineering at Tongji University, China. Her supervisors are Professsor Dong-Sheng Jeng (civil engineering), Dundee University and Dr Pietro Iannetta (functional ecology) at SCRI. Welcome Wenni!

M&S industry initiative for sustainable agriculture  A recent LEAF news brief states 'Marks & Spencer has partnered with a number of leading farming and environmental organisations to develop a set of simple measurements to help farmers make their businesses environmentally sustainable whilst improving their business performance.' M&S is working with independent experts including LEAF, WWF, RSPB, SCRI (and others) to develop a set of practical indicators that will allow farmers to monitor and improve their use of resources. The indicators will form part of M&S's Plan A. Geoff Squire and Cathy Hawes are contributing from Agroecology. (Added 10 August 2009)

Vice President appointed  A member of the Agroecology section, Scott Johnson, has been appointed Vice President of the Royal Entomological Society for 2009-10. The Society's origins date back to 1745 and the post of Vice President has been occupied by many distinguished researchers, including Charles Darwin (1838). (Added 8 June 2009)

New opportunity in nodule research Euan James and Pete Iannetta have begun a funded collaboration with Prof Manuel Becana from Estacion Experimental de Aula Dei, CSIC, Zaragoza, Spain on localising various antioxidant enzymes at tissue, cell and organelle levels in legume nodules. It complements existing work on defining the microbial diversity and functional role of nitrogen-fixing nodules of wild and cultivated legume species.  It also continues a long term collaboration between Euan James and the Spanish group (Ramos et al. 2009. New Phytologist 181, 103-114 doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02629.x). (Added 28 May 2009)

 

 

Sustainable resource use in north China The group's research in environmental risk assessment, geneflow, ecological processes and modelling contributed to a block seminar run by the University of Hohenheim, Germany and the China Agricultural University at Beijing between 22 and 29 March 2009. As a part of long standing educational cooperatiion between the universities, the week long event on 'Sustainable resource use in north China' included seminars and project presentations by German and Chinese doctorate students and a visit to Qingdao Agriculture University in Shandong. The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and Chinese Ministry of Education provided funding. Thanks for the invitation go to Dr Sabine Gruber and Prof William Claupein from Hohenheim and Prof Dr Wang Pu from CAU. Report by Geoff Squire.

Online weather station One of the group's automatic weather stations is now online. Click the link at the top of the agroecology page to see the records, averaged over 15-minute intervals throughout the day. The weather station (shown to the right) records incoming solar radiation, air and soil temperature, windspeed, wind direction, humidity and precipitation. The mast is sited at one of the group's field experiments and sends data by radio transmitter to a computer in the laboratory, from where it goes online. The weather data are used routinely in studies at SCRI of vegetation and invertebrates. The online data can also be used for exercises in the classroom or simply to see what the day is like before venturing out in the Carse! Contact Mark Young for details. (Added 30 March 2009)

New doctoral student in multi-trophic modelling Ananthi Anandanadesan has joined the group recently to work on a three-year CASE PhD studentship modelling trophic interactions. She has a B.S. in Biology at The George Washington University, Washing D.C., USA, and a MRes in Mathematics in the Living Environment from York University, UK. Her project at York was  modelling the population dynamics of univoltine butterflies. In the summer of 2008, she worked at the British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK on the stability of the Southern Ocean food web. She also plays flute, piona and violin, thereby adding considerably to the musical talent of the agroecology group. Ananthi will be based in the Mathematics Department at the University of Dundee (Mark Chaplain). Her experimental work will be at SCRI (Steve Hubbard, Alison Karley). Welcome Ananthi. (Added 30 March 2009)

Nitrogen fixation in Swedish wild legumes A new collaboration will investigate the nitrogen fixing abilities of wild legumes in Sweden and complement the work reported earlier on wild legumes in Scotland. The aim is to assess the ecological role of these plants and the scope for their use in cropping systems. The Dr Euan James at SCRI will isolate bacteria from the nodules and make cross-sections of nodules for microscopic analysis. The collection of plants is provided by Professor Kerstin Huss-Danell and colleagues, Swedish University of Agricutural Sciences, Umea. Other collaborators at SCRI/Dundee are Pete Iannetta and Professor Janet Sprent. (Added 17 March 2009)

European Co-existence Bureau hears about SIGMEA results on geneflow The EU SIGMEA project's data on cross pollination and seed persistence is the primary evidence base in Europe for determining policy and practice in the co-existence between genetically modified (GM) and non-GM crops. Geoff Squire (SIGMEA data coordinator) was invited in early March 2009 to present the findings of SIGMEA to the European Coexistence Bureau's Technical Working Group for Maize in Seville. Topics in the presentation and discussion involved cross pollination, seed persistence, volunteer weeds and maize landraces. (Added 16 March 2009)

Essay prize for doctoral student Lindsay The complex interactions between plants, their viruses and the insects that transmit them is the topic of an essay by Agroecology PhD student Lindsay McMenemy which was awarded second prize in the Royal Entomological Society's 2008 Student Award. Congratulations! The current SCRI newsletter gives further details. (Added 18 February 2009)

Benilda's geneflow problems solved? Benilda Sable (right, in the lab) is visiting from the University of Manitoba (UoM), Canada, where she is doing research for a PhD on the effects of flowering phenology on gene flow between volunteer and crop canola (oilseed rape, Brassica napus) under the supervision of Prof Rene Van Acker (University of Guelph) and Dr Robert Gulden (UoM). With help from Graham Begg, Danny Cullen, Pete Iannetta and Gill Banks, Benilda will quantify the gene flow that took place in field experiments in Canada using a real-time quantitiative PCR assay developed here. Benilda is the second PhD student from the UoM Department of Plant Sciences to spend time with the Agroecology group following recent visists of Muthukumar Bagavathiannan (Muthu). Welcome Benilda! Apparently it's been -50 over there, so what's a bit of frost and snow! (Added 6 February 2009)

Innovation Centre needs LEAF farmers Linking Environment and Farming (LEAF) has sent out an e-brief LEAF Innovation Centre Needs You! to all LEAF farmers in the UK, requesting their comments and suggestions on the new sustainability platform at SCRI's Balruddery farm. LEAF farmers are asked to contact Cathy Hawes about any innovative management practices that they would like to see tested on the new field research platform. (Added 2 February 2009).

EFSA Guidance Document on ERA The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is revising its Guidance Document on Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) for genetically modified organisms. Geoff Squire will join a working group responsible for writing the revised ERA, which is scheduled to be completed in 2010. (Added 23 January 2009)

2008 July to December

Commercialisation Award on Capsella tea Over the summer of 2008, Pete Iannetta, with Drs Val Ferro and Sandy Gray of the University of Strathclyde's Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, supervised an MSc project on Capsella tea extracts by biotechnology student Asha Raymond from the University of Abertay Dundee. The extracts were shown to possess powerful therapeutic potential, and on the basis of the results, an SCRI Commercialisation Award was won to support a project entitled 'Characterising weeds for their therapeutic potential: Capsella as a model'. The award (c. £18,000) is jointly by SCRI and Scottish Enterprise and will start in early 2009, supporting a postgraduate scientist for six months to identify the specific active compounds and build on the collaboration with Strathclyde. Capsella bursa-pastoris L. Medik. (shepherd's purse) is a common plant of fields and other disturbed land and is widely recognised as effective treatment for a range of ailments. Though found and sold throughout the world, the scientific basis of its use has only been addressed superficially. Consequently, Capsella is exploited commercially mainly on a small scale as dried, cut flowering stems for hot water infusions. Exploiting arable plants is of potential socioeconomic and environmental importance, as it is an effective way of adding essential biodiversity to agricultural production systems. (Added 3 December 2008)

Nerveless in Nevada All credit to two of our early doctorate students - Emily Clark and Nicola Cook - who made their way to the annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America held in Reno, Nevada USA, 16-19 November 2008, to give short presentations each on their respective topics, aphid-virus interactions and the population genetics of farmland sawflies. A rewarding and enriching experience it seems. Thanks to the Society for Experimental Biology for helping Emily with travel costs. (Added 25 November 2008)

Poster night at the BES (by Scott Johnson)Katy poster prize At the British Ecological Society meeting (third item below), Katy Clark, a doctoral student in Agroecology won the runner up prize of a small honorarium in the poster competition. The poster is titled 'Oviposition behaviour of the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) in relation to different raspberry (Rubus spp.) cultivars'. Posters were judged by delegate vote in the face of fierce competition. (Added 18 September 2008)

Scotland House, Brussels Pete Iannetta secured around £2000 from Scottish Enterprise towards organising a bid for EU funding in collaboration with several European partners. The proposed project would benefit Scotland through 'direct market impact'.  The partners met recently in Scotland House in Brussels We were the first external group to take advantage of the excellent new facilities there for meetings and networking. Thanks to staff at Scotland House for their warm welcome. (Added 16 September 2008)

SIGMEA logoSIGMEA biosafety at Berlin Geoff Squire gave an invited presentation on ecological biosafety at the third Meeting of the European Advisory Committees on Biosafety held in early September 2008 in Berlin. The work was presented on behalf of research partners in the SIGMEA project (EU, FP6) and concentrated on field experiments on insect-resistant (Bt) maize and herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape. (Added 16 September 2008)

British Ecological Society Meeting at Imperial College, London  There was a significant EPI presence at the annual meeting of the BES at the Imperial campus in South Kensington, 3-5 September 2008. Scott Johnson, Ali Karley and Cathy Hawes organised and chaired a successful thematic session on Multi-trophic interactions: from genome to field at which Professor Guy Poppy (Southampton) gave the keynote presentation followed by contributions from a range of countries.  Eight or so PhD students or early post-docs from Agroecology and Plant Soil Interactions gave posters or presentations in various sessions (some for the first time or the first time in English!).  A memorable event. (Added 7 September 2008)

Bandanas and machetes Two new items for the agroecology consumables budget?  Well .... Steve Hubbard, Jane Wishart and a group of students from Dundee University have returned from an expedition to the forests of Trinidad. Steve writes "The project was investigating the hypothesis that birds in the humid tropics survive better on average that their temperate counterparts.There is a large body of evidence that tropical birds lay smaller clutches - two is typical of small birds, where as in temperate regions 4 or 5 would be typical - and this has resulted in a general acceptance that survival rates must be correspondingly higher, but the evidence is poor, probably because its very hard to get.  Since 1985 Dundee University has been ringing birds in the northern range in Trinidad, which is geologically the tail end of the Andes as they swing up the west and across the top of South America, and Trinidad was part of the mainland until just after the last glacial maximum, so its flora and fauna are very typically neotropical, unlike most of the other West Indian islands. So, In montane forest at 3000 feet in Trinidad on the occasion of ringing their 1000th birdthe project was to capture by mist net, and ring birds in three forest habitats where birds have been ringed since the mid 80s - disturbed seasonal deciduous forest, undisturbed montane rainforest and undisturbed lowland evergreen forest (Amazon type, but not yet mature).  This involves getting up at 4am, getting to the site in the truck, walking in in the dark and having the nets open at dawn (5.30am).  Pitfalls of this process are:  catching bats which haven't yet gone to bed (rabies risk), treading on snakes in the dark as you walk in (one student almost trod on a fer-de-lance on a forest trail - we have the video), and grumpy students when you get them out of bed at 4am.  The rewards are, however, great.  We caught and ringed 1500 birds, and retrapped some birds which had been caught many years before, the most notable of which was a Plain Brown Woodcreeper (like a thrush) which had been ringed in 1988.  The other comparison which can be made from such an extensive data set is that associated with climate change, because, like us, they have been experiencing wetter summers than 20 years ago.  So all we have to do now is to apply the statistical blender to the data after its all been checked, and we're ready to go.  In addition, we took DNA samples from a single common species (Bananaquit) to assess the efficacy of a new method of measuring intraspecific genetic variation.  This is important, because when habitats are disturbed you not only lose species, but the genetic variability in the remaining species tends to collapse, and comforting yourself that such and such a species is still there may be premature, because loss of variability may lead to inbreeding depression and extinction some way down the line." Ed: the photograph shows Steve at left of centre wearing what looks like a headtorch, Jane lower left with dirty knees but otherwise remarkable cool and the students. (Added 29 August 2008)

Fixing nitrogen in Scotland Dr Euan James has recently begun a scoping study within the group on the distribution and potential contribution of wild and weedy leguminous species to nitrogen fixation in Scotland. Since little is known of most such species, the first stage is to collect plant accessions and samples across Scotland for subsequent laboratory analysis. Dr James is based at the University of Dundee and has wide expertise in the molecular, structural and physiological aspects of nitrogen fixation. Others in the study are Professor Janet Sprent (University of Dundee), Pete Iannetta and Geoff Squire (Agroecology group) and the University of Umea, Sweden. (Added 13 August 2008)

Logo of the Josef Stefan InstituteEcological energetics The group has recently diversified its collaborative ventures with Dr Marko Debeljak and the Department of Knowledge Technologies of the Josef Stefan Institute in Slovenia.  Marko has collaborated with several SCRI people in recent years, bringing new analytical skills to research in soil quality and seed persistence. He will work until the end of 2008 on a starter project in ecological energetics, using the group's datasets to compare and model the ecological effects of historical change in energy capture by crops compared to potential change due to biotechnical innovations. Collaborators at SCRI include Mark Young, Cathy Hawes and Geoff Squire. (Added 5 August 2008)

Computer programmer Richard Dye, a programmer from Dundee University, has joined the group for three months to work with Cathy Hawes and Roger Humphry on a BBSRC Sustainable Arable LINK project. He'll be developing our model of plant and insect functional diversity (food webs and trophic interactions) to improve code and implement new features including the detritivore component. Welcome Richard. (Added 31 July 2008)

2008 January to June

Muthu's feral alfalfa  Mr M. Bagavathiannan, know to colleagues as Muthu, has just returned to the University of Manitoba, Wisconsin, Canada where he is working for a doctorate on the life history and ecological role of feral alfalfa, which offers similar interests to our feral oilseed rape. Muthu has been working with Graham Begg on a life cycle model and with Mark Young on mapping feral population sites. He has just published his first paper (Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 127, 1-6). We look forward to continuing this collaboration with Manitoba. (Added 23 June 2008).

Living Field new website live The much revamped website for the Living Field project is now live. The Living Field is SCRI's educational outreach on farming, wildlife and the environment, taking its source material  mainly from the Environment Plant Interactions programme. Congratulations to Gladys Wright and the team, together with IT and CIS, for a great effort. (Added 13 June 2008)

Scotland's largest arable seedbank study  As part of the 'Baseline Study' of arable east Scotland, the group has completed a comprehensive assessment of the seedbank - the buried, living plant seeds - in arable-grass fields under different types of field management from the Black Isle to East Lothian.  The work on seedbanks will allow us to assess the dual roles of arable plants as weed burden and base of the food web, and is a major part of a wider study of the biophysical and economic state of Scotland's fields. Following collection of soil samples by SCRI and SAC, the mammoth task of estimating of the seedbank by emergence of seedlings was completed by Linda Ford and Gina Hunjan. Farmers who provided fields for the study will be sent data for their farm once all records have been checked, audited and databased by our IT specialist Mark Young. For information, contact Cathy Hawes. (Added 30 May 2008)

New PhD grant awarded by EPSRC  A team from Dundee University and SCRI has been awarded an Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Case PhD studentship on 'The mathematical modelling of the spatio-temporal dynmics of aphid-plant-virus interactions.'  Supervision is by Professor Mark Chaplain of the Division of Mathematics University of Dundee, Dr Steve Hubbard of Plant Sciences, University of Dundee based at SCRI and Dr Ali Karley (Agroecology group at SCRI).  View project description(Added 28 May 2008)

Maize cropping systems workshop at Pau, France Members of the Agroecology group helped organise a workshop on optimising maize cropping systems for environmental and economic benefits. The workshop was hosted by Arvalis at Pau in the south west region of France on 21 and 22 May 2008 and included contributors from France, Slovenia, Spain, Denmark and the UK. Geoff Squire was in the organising group. Nick Birch gave a summary of the ECOGEN project. (Added 28 May 2008)

Photograph of a sawflyNew doctoral student Nicola Cook, a graduate from Dundee University, recently joined the group on a three-year PhD studentship on the population genetics of farmland sawflies. The sawflies are a potentially diminishing food of diminishing bird populations. They have problems to do with their autosomes The project is funded by BBSRC, the Game Conservancy Trust Ltd (CASE partner) and SCRI and is supervised by Steve Hubbard (Dundee University), Ali Karley and Dave Parish at GCT. Welcome Nicola to a challenging route through ecology, population genetics and molecular biology. See project description. (Added 14 May 2008)

EC evaluation panel Pete Iannetta has recently returned from a session in Brussels as a member of an evaluation panel for research proposals relating to biodiversity, climate change and agricultural sustainability. (Added 25 April 2008)

Mathematics in Plant Sciences Study group report The initial results of the collaboration in Capsella diversity by Jane Wishart and Pete Iannetta with mathematicians at the University of Nottingham is now available on the Centre for Plant Integrative Biology website. (Added 25 April 2008, updated from December 2007)

More invited papers at Durban ICE Katy Clark, a PhD student and Scott Johnson, have been invited to give papers at the International Congress of Entomology (ICE) at Durban, South Africa in July 2008. This is in addition to invitations also to Nick Birch reported earlier. Katy was awarded funding for travel from the Worshipful Company of Fruiterers. Details of presentations to follow. (Updated 21 April, from notice added 25 March 2008)

Photograph of a clay coloured weevilSmall BES ecological grant for Carolyn Mitchell Carolyn, an early post-doc researcher in the group, has won a Small Ecological Project Grant worth £2255 from the British Ecological Society. The grant goes towards travel and expenses for a project titled 'Sniffing out trouble: does the clay coloured weevil avoid leaves producing SOS signals?' The weevil, Otiorhynchus singularis, feeds on the red raspberry and itself is attacked by a generalist parasitoid. The project will test several hypotheses linking the plant, the weevil and a parasitoid through chemical signals. Congratulations Caroline! (Added 28 March 2008)

Image of the Bremen conference posterUpscaling GM impacts in Bremen Agroecology Group members including Geoff Squire and Cathy Hawes will give an invited plenary paper at an international meeting on Implications of GM crop cultivation at large spatial scales held in the University of Bremen, Germany, 2 - 4 April 2008. Their topic will include the use of accumulation-curves to assess the upscaling of impacts on biodiversity from field to region. (Added 25 March 2008)

Berlin BEETLE workshop in on long term effects Geoff Squire was invited to the BEETLE Crea Space workshop held by BVL in Berlin on 13 February 2008 as a member of a study group to consider the ecological impacts of biotech crops. BEETLE is the acronym for the EU project 'Biological and Ecological Evaluation towards Long Term Effects'.  (Added 25 March 2008) 

Bioforsk visit by Nick Birch Nick visited Bioforsk, As, Norway for an inaugural meeting, 7-10 February 2008, of the Bioforsk programme 'Plant metabolites and health', to which SCRI contributes in insect-plant chemical ecology and metabolites. This initiative builds on a MoU between Bioforsk and SCRI signed in 2007. Further joint work is being developed in microbial decontamination of soil and in plant pathology. (Added 25 March 2008)

Dr Steve Hubbard joins Agroecology at SCRI We are delighted to welcome Steve, who moves his base to SCRI in November 2007 and will be affiliated to the Agroecology group. Steve is a Reader in the Division of Environmental and Applied Biology at the School of Life Sciences Research Biocentre at the University of Dundee. His interests lie in spatially complex, 3-dimensional, multispecies systems. An example is the way spatial heterogeneity in the environment preserves and promotes stability and complexity in insect host-parasitoid-microbe systems. See Steve's web page on the University of Dundee website. (Added 14 December 2007)

2007

Mathematics in Plant Sciences Study Group Agroecology members Jane Wishart and Pete Iannetta will have their topic considered in the First Mathematics in the Plant Sciences Study Group (MPSSG), hosted by GARNet and the Centre for Plant Integrative Biology, at the University of Nottingham, 17-20 December 2007. The Study Group aims to promote interactions between mathematiciands and experimentalists. Jane and Pete's topic is 'Measuring genetic diversity' using recent data from the model plant Capsella bursa-pastoris. This and other problems presented by plant scientists will be tackled by assembled mathematicians. (Added December 2007)

Biodiversity and ecological resilience survey of arable East Scotland YTasks scheduled for 2007 have been completed successfully by teams from SCRI and SAC. Data on weed vegetation and field margins are being checked and audited; samples for seedbank and soil properties will be processed by late Spring 2008. Our thanks go to more than 50 farmers from Moray to East Lothian who co-operated by giving access to their fields and information on their agronomy. This major baseline survey of conditions in arable/grass ecosystems will continue in 2008. For information, contact Cathy Hawes at SCRI or Christine Watson at SAC.

Multi-trophic interactions from genome to field is a thematic session at the British Ecological Society Annual Meeting at Imperial College London in September 2008. Session organised by Scott Johnson, Cathy Hawes and Alison Karley from the SCRI Agroecology group. Details to follow.

Miscellaneous

Population genetics of farmland sawflies CASE project jointly funded by the BBSRC, the Game Conservancy Trust Ltd (CASE partner), and the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI).

Over the last 50 years or so populations of certain farmland bird species have undergone catastrophic declines. Among the key indicator species are Grey Partridges, Yellowhammers and Corn Buntings, all of which are now regarded as endangered. The declines in these and other species are generally attributed to “farming intensification”, a term which includes the loss of hedgerows and other field margins, an increase in overall field size, a huge increase in winter-sown crops and the consequent loss of winter stubbles, and the excessive use of synthetic pesticides and herbicides. One of the possible effects of such intensive prescriptions may be that they affect the supply of insect food to bird populations at certain critical points in their breeding cycle. It has been suggested that one of the key components of the fledgling diet of species such as Grey Partridge are the larvae of grassland sawflies, and that intensification has reduced the numbers of these insects to a point that bird species which depend on them have been critically reduced likewise.

Sawflies are primitive members of the insect order Hymenoptera, which includes ants, wasps and bees. Their larvae are large and fleshy, and very much resemble the larvae of moths and butterflies. It is not surprising, therefore, that breeding birds make use of them to supply the needs of rapidly developing chicks. However, it has been suggested that sawfly populations are more than usually susceptible to disturbance, firstly because their adult stages are poor dispersers, and secondly because some species are known to possess single locus complementary sex determination (SL-CSD). Species which have SL-CSD possess an autosomal sex locus in which heterozygotes are fertile females but homozygotes are infertile males (fertile males exist in the hymenopteran hemizygous condition). Obviously, any species which has both poor dispersal and SL-CSD is likely to be disproportionately vulnerable to local extinction through the increased production of homozygotes as a result of inbreeding. These same characteristics are likely to make the recolonisation of areas from which sawflies have become locally extinct correspondingly slow.

If these suggestions are correct it should be possible to detect them through patterns of genetic variation within and between sawfly populations on spatial scales which range from within and between fields, to much larger scales encompassing the entire UK. The project link with the Game Conservancy will allow sawflies to be collected from locations ranging from the north of Scotland to the south coast of England, and from both intensive and non-intensive farms. Variation will be quantified by the development of appropriate genetic markers, and the presence/absence of SL-CSD will be determined by flowcytometric analysis of neuronal cell DNA content. The project, therefore, includes substantial elements of molecular and cell biology, combined with intensive periods of fieldwork during the spring and summer.

 

Online weather station